The only mobile AA vehicles the Red Army had in numbers at the beginning of Barbarossa in 1941 were truck-mounted examples of the Tokarev 4M Model 1931 quadruple Maxim machine gun. Used throughout the war with later units added to with the American-built M17 half-track.
The quad-mounted anti-aircraft Maxim was developed in 1930 and tested alongside several other quad-, triple- and dualmount weapons, before being adopted by the Red Army in 1931. The water-cooled Maxims were heavy to start with and mounting four of them on a hefty enough pedestal to absorb their recoil produced a weapon that was only suitable for static emplacement or mounting in the back of a truck. Principal service: 1941–45. Numbers manufactured: Unknown.